Frequently Asked Questions / 常见问题

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Frequently Asked Questions:

What does E85 mean?  How does the US mandate ethanol usage?  / E85是什么意思?美国是如何管理酒精汽油使用的?

What is a kWh?
 / 什么是千瓦小时?

What is a Plasma Conversion System? / 什么是等离子转化系统?

Advantages of Plasma Converstion Systems / 等离子转化系统的优势

Other Benefits of Plasma Conversion Systems / 等离子气化系统的其他优点






What does E85 mean?  How does the US mandate ethanol usage? / E85是什么意思?美国是如何管理酒精汽油使用的?

E85 is a mix of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline and it can only be used in flex-fuel vehicles.  It cannot be used in conventional engines, but E85 flex-fuel vehicles can run any fuel with 0 to 85% ethanol. 

Since 2001, the EPA’s Renewable Fuel Standard has approved the 15% ethanol and 85% gasoline blend (E15) from the previous 10% blend (E10).   According to the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, ethanol use will increase to 36 million gallons by 2022 (in 2007 it was 4.7 billion gallons) in the United States.  By 2022 of which 60% of it must be ethanol from non-corn based ethanol. 





What is a kWh? / 什么是千瓦小时?

A kilowatt-hour (kWh) is 1000 watts per hour.  A watt-hour is usage over time, while a watt is usage at this instant.  A 100-watt light bulb will use 0.1 kW per hour, calculated by multiplying the wattage by the number of hours (in this case one) and divided by 1000.

A kilowatt is 1,000 watts, and a megawatt is 1,000,000 watts.

If you only know the amps, you can multiply amps by volts to get the amount of watts in a household appliance.






What is a Plasma Conversion System? / 什么是等离子转化系统?

The plasma conversion system provides a total solution to the problems of waste management. This is a general overview of the plasma conversion system that safely, efficiently and economically destroys wastes, no matter what form, and turns the waste into useful and valuable products.  This system can efficiently process waste streams eliminating all waste that is not nuclear. 

 The plasma system is an electrically driven system which causes the molecular breakdown of matter. The energy that the waste is put under produces chemical decomposition or dissociation on a molecular scale until the waste reaches the level of the basic components (atoms). In doing so, the System protects the environment and helps to improve the public health and safety, vital to the ecosystem, the tourism industry and the local economy.

The plasma conversion system achieves closed-loop elemental recycling to safely and irreversibly destroy all industrial and agricultural waste which includes:

·         organics and inorganics / 有机物和无机物

·         solids, liquids and gases / 固体,液体,气体

·         hazardous and non-hazardous industrial waste / 有毒和无毒的工业废物

·         e-waste (electronic waste) / 电子垃圾

·         medical waste / 医疗垃圾

·         chemical industry waste / 化学工业垃圾

·         Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) / 市政固体垃圾

and other special wastes while converting many of them into useful commodity products that can include metals and a synthesis-gas.

The plasma system melts and recovers metals for the metallurgical industry, and other non-organics such as glass, dirt, rock, resulting in an obsidian-like, glassy silicate compound.

The following figures show how the plasma conversion system works through the different steps starting with figure 1.















Advantages of Using a Plasma System / 等离子转化系统的优势

1.       Can process all waste material safely and economically, in any form: / 可以安全低成本处理任何形态的各种形态的垃圾废物:

·         hazardous and nonhazardous wastes-solids, liquids, sludges and gases, / 有毒和无毒的固体,液体,泥浆状和气体垃圾

·         medical wastes industrial wastes including chemical solvents, greases, sludges, refinery by-products / 医疗垃圾,包括化学溶剂,润滑剂,泥浆状垃圾和提炼副产品

·         sanitary waste / 卫生垃圾

·         specialty wastes / 特殊垃圾

2.       Produce green non-dollar generated electricity. / 无成本绿色发电

3.       Provide employment opportunities and training of local populace in new technical skills. / 提供就业机会,帮助本地居民掌握就业技能

4.       Closed-loop elemental recycling system processes wastes safely and economically in non-combustion, no smoke stack process without producing harmful, noxious emissions, effluents or residues. / 封闭循环系统

5.       Recycles wastes into marketable commodities such as materials for building and highway constructions. Materials previously regarded as waste are recycled and processed as feedstock to produce these commodities. / 将垃圾回收制造为建筑材料,用于楼宇和高速公路工程。过去被当作垃圾的材料得以回收再利用。

6.       Improves public health and safety. / 提高公众健康和安全

·         Reduction of indiscriminate burning of waste / 减少无分类垃圾燃烧

·      Reduction and elimination of untreated and non-sealed landfills thereby and will not produce the harm that arises from incinerators and landfills. / 削减并消除未处理露天垃圾堆,从而减少垃圾堆和焚烧炉带来的污染

·         Potential Reduction and elimination of endemic diseases such as Dengue fever and malaria that arise from mosquito breeding sources in landfills. / 减少并清除垃圾堆滋生蚊虫带来的瘟疫疟疾

7.       Greatly reduces cost and risks associated with waste generation producing positive cash flow and profits. / 大幅减少垃圾处理的成本和风险,并能带来可观盈利。

8.       Meets and exceeds all U.S. EPA emission standards. / 达到甚至超过EPA排放标准。

9.       Systems are scalable, and can be used to just a few tones to hundreds of tons per day based on available feedstock. / 系统可以任意扩容,从每天几吨到几百吨。

10.    System can be located adjacent to existing landfill. / 系统可以设置于的垃圾填埋场边。

11.    Volumetric waste reduction for most solid wastes is approximately 300 to 1. / 可以最多把垃圾压缩成原来的300分之一大小。

12.    Combined Energy Efficiency (energy input versus output) is greater than 85%. / 整体能源利用率高于85%。

13.   Recycling of landfills would reduce discharge of contaminants into the atmosphere and groundwater, such as carbon dioxide, sulphides, and pesticides. / 垃圾堆回收可以减少排放到自然环境中的污染物,包括二氧化碳,硫化物和农药。

14.   Mining of existing landfill sites until fully emptied and reclamation of landfill sites producing green usage space. / 逐渐回收垃圾堆,收回所占土地。

15.   Can operate continuously without many of the difficulties and costs that arise in other technologies when operated in the same manner. / 即使连续作业也不会像其他系统一样产生额外成本。

16.   Because the System is inherently safe, being electrically driven, unlike incinerators, its operation can be stopped immediately by shutting off the electricity. / 系统运转安全。跟焚化炉不同,这套系统断电即停止工作。

17.   The system is computer controlled, easy to use and operates at normal atmospheric pressure, very safely and quietly. / 电脑控制,一般压力环境下即可运行,安全低噪。





Other Benefits of Plasma Gasification: / 等离子气化系统的其他优点:

Plasma gasification has several byproducts that can be used as raw materials to create other products.  The plasma system results in an ash while some other gasification processes create slag. 

Slag is about 20% of the weight of the original waste and about 5% of the original volume.  Depending on the system used slag takes different forms (air or water cooling systems).  Slag comes out in a liquid form and one of the possible uses of slag is that it can be funneled into molds and used in construction material. 

In the byproducts of the plasma systems any hazardous materials that had once been part of the system are inert and the materials are in no danger of dissolving out. Thus the materials are safe for the environment and the health of those that will have exposure to them.





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